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Which Is Best? – GoodneessNature.com


On the earth of sports activities dietary supplements, there’s a long-standing debate round creatine HCL vs monohydrate.

Each contenders, HCL creatine and creatine monohydrate, have their loyalists, every swearing by the advantages of their chosen kind.

However in research evaluating creatine monohydrate vs HCL, how do these kind of creatine differ, what are their execs and cons, and which comes out on high?

Get evidence-based solutions to those questions and extra on this article.

What Is Creatine?

Creatine is a pure compound comprising the amino acids L-arginine, glycine, and methionine

Your physique produces creatine naturally, however it will probably additionally take up and retailer creatine from meals like meat, eggs, and fish.

Creatine accelerates the method that produces adenosine triphosphate (ATP), our cells’ major vitality supply.

Taking creatine sports activities dietary supplements enormously increases your physique’s creatine shops, resulting in increased muscle progress, improved power and energy, better anaerobic capability, reduced fatigue, less muscle injury and soreness after train, modified gene expression regarding hypertrophy, and greater muscle retention after grueling exercises.

Discover the Excellent Dietary supplements for You in Simply 60 Seconds

You do not want dietary supplements to construct muscle, lose fats, and get wholesome. However the fitting ones may help. Take this quiz to study which of them are finest for you.

Take the Quiz

Creatine HCL vs. Monohydrate: Variations

Creatine monohydrate is creatine certain to 1 molecule of water (“mono” that means one and “hydrate” referring to water).

It’s essentially the most well-studied kind of creatine accessible, and research repeatedly exhibits that creatine monohydrate dietary supplements are secure and increase your athletic efficiency as a lot or greater than different types of creatine.

Through the years, producers have modified creatine in varied methods within the hopes of creating a kind of creatine that’s simpler than monohydrate. 

Creatine hydrochloride (HCL) is one such kind.

HCL creatine is chemically just like monohydrate, solely the creatine molecules bind to hydrochloric acid moderately than water. 

This distinction provides creatine HCL two potential benefits over monohydrate:

  1. Improved solubility: HCL is extra “soluble” in water (it dissolves extra simply) than monohydrate.
  2. Enhanced absorption: HCL strikes by way of the intestine wall extra effectively than monohydrate, optimizing the quantity your physique makes use of.

Some consider these potential advantages imply you want much less HCL creatine to fill muscle cells, resulting in much less creatine excretion and abdomen discomfort.

Creatine HCL vs. Monohydrate: The Proof

Three studies support the theoretical advantages of creatine HCL.

Nonetheless, none concerned human members—scientists studied HCL and monohydrate solubility utilizing lab tools and assessed absorption utilizing human cells, pig pores and skin, and rat brains. 

Given the variations in how varied species store and course of creatine, it’s unsure if these findings would translate to residing people. Even when they did, the advantages may not be as important as anticipated.

That’s as a result of the few research that pit creatine monohydrate vs. HCL present they’re equally efficient.

In a single study revealed within the journal Meals and Vitamin Sciences, researchers had weightlifters take creatine monohydrate or creatine HCL every day for 4 weeks whereas following a power coaching program.

The outcomes confirmed that all the weightlifters gained comparable power on the bench and leg press, however those that took HCL appeared to lose extra fats and achieve extra “fat-free mass” (a proxy for muscle).

Whereas this may look like a victory for HCL, two factors warrant warning.

First, the researchers decided the weightlifters’ physique fats share utilizing skinfold calipers, a way identified for its inaccuracy. Therefore, errors throughout measuring may simply have brought on the adjustments in physique fats share.

And second, the research famous that solely these taking HCL noticed a major improve in fat-free mass though the monohydrate group noticed a bigger improve (3.5 kilos vs. 3.7 kilos), a discrepancy the authors failed to elucidate.

In a subsequent study by the identical analysis workforce, athletes taking HCL and monohydrate noticed related will increase in lean physique mass (one other proxy for muscle) and power, however solely these taking HCL noticed a lower in fats.

Once more, the scientists used skinfold calipers to find out these adjustments, which makes it tough to attract agency conclusions from their findings. 

Within the final study to match creatine monohydrate vs. HCL, researchers discovered that each HCL and monohydrate failed to enhance athletic efficiency and anabolic (“muscle-building”) hormone ranges in younger males after one week.

These findings are unsurprising contemplating the time creatine takes to exert its results and its minimal impact on hormone ranges.

Discover the Finest Weight loss program for You in Simply 60 Seconds

What number of energy do you have to eat? What about “macros?” What meals do you have to eat? Take our 60-second quiz to get science-based solutions to those questions and extra.

Take the Quiz

Creatine HCL vs. Monohydrate: Execs and Cons

Scientists developed creatine HCL to sidestep monohydrate’s most widespread unintended effects: water retention and weight achieve.

These unintended effects usually have an effect on folks throughout a creatine “loading section,” the place you are taking greater doses for the primary week of taking creatine monohydrate to accelerate its accumulation in your muscle mass.

Throughout this time, your physique may retain extra water than in the event you took smaller doses, probably inflicting short-term bloating and weight achieve. 

Due to its chemical composition, HCL creatine is 38 occasions extra soluble than monohydrate and probably extra “bioavailable.” As such, many consider taking HCL helps you keep away from hostile unintended effects because you devour much less water and creatine than when supplementing with monohydrate.

Whereas these benefits sound promising, no proof confirms them in people, so it’s best to consider them as “potential” moderately than “confirmed” advantages till scientists affirm them with high-quality analysis.

One more reason to not get too jazzed about these potential “execs” is that loading creatine monohydrate is non-obligatory.

If you happen to’re apprehensive about experiencing unintended effects, you may merely skip the loading section and take 3-to-5 grams every day as a substitute. This strategy might imply it’s important to wait barely longer to expertise creatine’s performance-enhancing advantages, nevertheless it gained’t affect its long-term effectiveness. 

In different phrases, there’s no assure HCL has any benefits over monohydrate. And even when it does, you may offset these benefits by taking much less monohydrate once you start supplementing.

A significant downside of selecting HCL over monohydrate is the price.

In a systematic review by the College of Colorado, researchers discovered that the majority types of creatine increase efficiency to an analogous diploma, however creatine monohydrate is considerably extra inexpensive. In accordance with their evaluation, the common price of a 5-gram serving of HCL is $1.10. 

In the meantime, a 5-gram serving of monohydrate prices simply $0.29.

Creatine HCL vs. Monohydrate: Frequent Aspect Results

As famous earlier, HCL creatine might barely scale back your threat of water retention, bloating, and short-term weight achieve in comparison with creatine monohydrate. 

That stated, skipping the loading section when utilizing monohydrate also can mitigate these unintended effects.

Except for these minor and normally short-lived unintended effects, supplementing with creatine is mostly secure, even when taking giant every day doses (30 grams per day) for a number of years.

Opposite to what some say, there’s no proof it causes zits, complications, or high blood pressure. Furthermore, it doesn’t disturb sleep, virtually definitely doesn’t cause hair loss, and supplied you could have wholesome kidneys, it won’t harm kidney well being, both. 

Some Nutritionists Cost Lots of of {Dollars} for This Weight loss program “Hack” . . .

. . . and it is yours totally free. Take our 60-second quiz and study precisely what number of energy it’s best to eat, what your “macros” needs to be, what meals are finest for you, and extra.

Take the Quiz

Creatine HCL vs. Creatine Monohydrate: Which Is Finest?

Analysis exhibits that creatine of any variety improves your athletic efficiency in quite a few methods. 

Nonetheless, no kind of creatine is as well-studied, secure, cost-effective, and dependable as creatine monohydrate. 

Thus, monohydrate is the clear winner in a battle between creatine monohydrate vs. HCL

For a pure supply of micronized creatine monohydrate that additionally consists of two different elements to reinforce muscle progress and enhance restoration, attempt Recharge.

(If you happen to aren’t positive if Recharge is best for you or if one other complement may higher suit your funds, circumstances, and targets, then take the Legion Supplement Finder Quiz! In lower than a minute, it’ll let you know precisely what dietary supplements are best for you. Click here to check it out.)

FAQ #1: Does creatine make you larger?

Sure.

Creatine increases the quantity of water held in muscle cells, making your muscle mass seem larger.

It additionally positively impacts nitrogen balance and the expression of sure genes, which helps you achieve dimension by boosting muscle growth.

FAQ #2: When is one of the best time to take creatine for muscle achieve?

There’s no “finest time to take creatine.”

Research exhibits it really works completely effectively once you take it at any time of the day.

FAQ #3: What occurs once you cease taking creatine?

The creatine shops in your muscle mass will regularly deplete, inflicting your athletic efficiency to dip. 

This doesn’t occur in a single day, although.

Supplied your muscle mass are totally saturated once you cease, you may expect to hold onto roughly 80% of your saved creatine for as much as 2 weeks, and it’ll take round a month of not taking creatine earlier than your ranges return to “baseline.”

FAQ #4: Can you are taking creatine earlier than mattress?

Sure. 

Creatine isn’t a stimulant, so taking it earlier than mattress gained’t disturb your sleep.

Creatine might reduce complete and deep sleep period in animals. 

Whereas lowering sleep period and high quality normally harms psychological and bodily efficiency, other studies show that people taking creatine are mentally and bodily sharper, even when sleep-deprived.

Thus, it’s doable (although extremely speculative) that creatine may scale back your want for sleep and counteract the drawbacks of sleep deprivation.

FAQ #5: How a lot water ought to I drink with creatine?

For finest outcomes, observe the producer’s directions.

This normally means taking creatine with 8-to-12 ounces of water.

+ Scientific References

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\n\n\n\n On the earth of sports activities dietary supplements, there\u2019s a long-standing debate round creatine HCL vs monohydrate.<\/span><\/p>\n Each contenders, HCL creatine and creatine monohydrate, have their loyalists, every swearing by the advantages of their chosen kind.<\/span><\/p>\n However in research evaluating creatine monohydrate vs HCL, how do these kind of creatine differ, what are their execs and cons, and which comes out on high?<\/span><\/p>\n Get evidence-based solutions to those questions and extra on this article.<\/span><\/p>\n\n

What Is Creatine?<\/b><\/h2>\n Creatine is a pure compound <\/span>comprising<\/span><\/a> the amino acids <\/span>L-arginine<\/span><\/i>, <\/span>glycine<\/span><\/i>, and <\/span>methionine<\/span><\/i>.\u00a0<\/span><\/p>\n Your physique produces creatine naturally, however it will probably additionally take up and retailer creatine from meals like meat, eggs, and fish.<\/span><\/p>\n Creatine <\/span>accelerates<\/span><\/a> the method that <\/span>produces<\/span><\/a> adenosine triphosphate<\/span><\/i> (ATP<\/span>), our cells\u2019 major vitality supply.<\/span><\/p>\n Taking creatine <\/span>sports activities dietary supplements<\/span> enormously <\/span>increases<\/span><\/a> your physique\u2019s creatine shops, resulting in <\/span>increased<\/span><\/a> muscle progress, <\/span>improved<\/span><\/a> power and energy, <\/span>better<\/span><\/a> anaerobic capability, <\/span>reduced<\/span><\/a> fatigue, <\/span>less<\/span><\/a> muscle injury and soreness after train, <\/span>modified<\/span><\/a> gene expression regarding <\/span>hypertrophy<\/span><\/a>, and <\/span>greater<\/span><\/a> muscle retention after grueling exercises.<\/span><\/p>\n
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Discover the Excellent Dietary supplements for You in Simply 60 Seconds<\/h2>\n You do not want dietary supplements to construct muscle, lose fats, and get wholesome. However the fitting ones may help. Take this quiz to study which of them are finest for you.<\/p>\nTake the Quiz<\/a>\n<\/div>\n<\/div>\n<\/span><\/p>\n

Creatine HCL vs. Monohydrate<\/b>: Variations<\/b><\/h2>\n Creatine monohydrate is creatine certain to 1 molecule of water (\u201cmono\u201d that means one and \u201chydrate\u201d referring to water).<\/span><\/p>\n It\u2019s essentially the most well-studied <\/span>kind of creatine<\/span> accessible, and <\/span>research<\/span><\/a> repeatedly<\/span><\/a> exhibits that <\/span>creatine monohydrate dietary supplements<\/span> are secure and increase your <\/span>athletic efficiency<\/span> as a lot or greater than different types of creatine.<\/span><\/p>\n Through the years, producers have modified creatine in varied methods within the hopes of creating a <\/span>kind of creatine<\/span> that\u2019s simpler than monohydrate.\u00a0<\/span><\/p>\n Creatine hydrochloride (HCL)<\/span> is one such kind.<\/span><\/p>\n HCL creatine<\/span> is chemically just like monohydrate, solely the <\/span>creatine molecules<\/span> bind to <\/span>hydrochloric acid<\/span> moderately than water.\u00a0<\/span><\/p>\n This distinction provides <\/span>creatine HCL<\/span> two potential benefits over monohydrate:<\/span><\/p>\n
    \n
  1. Improved solubility:<\/b> HCL is extra \u201c<\/span>soluble\u201d in water<\/span> (it dissolves extra simply) than monohydrate.<\/span><\/li>\n
  2. Enhanced absorption:<\/b> HCL strikes by way of the intestine wall extra effectively than monohydrate, optimizing the quantity your physique makes use of.<\/span><\/li>\n<\/ol>\n Some consider these potential advantages imply you want much less <\/span>HCL creatine<\/span> to fill muscle cells, resulting in much less creatine excretion and abdomen discomfort.<\/span><\/p>\n

    Creatine HCL vs. Monohydrate<\/b>: The Proof<\/b><\/h2>\n Three<\/span><\/a> studies<\/span><\/a> support<\/span><\/a> the theoretical advantages of creatine HCL.<\/span><\/p>\n Nonetheless, none concerned human members\u2014scientists studied <\/span>HCL and monohydrate<\/span> solubility utilizing lab tools and assessed absorption utilizing human cells, pig pores and skin, and rat brains.\u00a0<\/span><\/p>\n Given the variations in how varied species <\/span>store<\/span><\/a> and course of creatine, it\u2019s unsure if these findings would translate to residing people. Even when they did, the advantages may not be as important as anticipated.<\/span><\/p>\n That\u2019s as a result of the few research that pit <\/span>creatine monohydrate vs. HCL<\/span> present they\u2019re equally efficient.<\/span><\/p>\n In a single <\/span>study<\/span><\/a> revealed within the journal <\/span>Meals and Vitamin Sciences<\/span><\/i>, researchers had weightlifters take creatine monohydrate or <\/span>creatine HCL<\/span> every day for 4 weeks whereas following a power coaching program.<\/span><\/p>\n The outcomes confirmed that all the weightlifters gained comparable power on the bench and leg press, however those that took HCL appeared to lose extra fats and achieve extra \u201cfat-free mass\u201d (a proxy for muscle).<\/span><\/p>\n Whereas this may look like a victory for HCL, two factors warrant warning.<\/span><\/p>\n First, the researchers decided the weightlifters\u2019 physique fats share utilizing skinfold calipers, a way identified for its inaccuracy. Therefore, errors throughout measuring may simply have brought on the adjustments in physique fats share.<\/span><\/p>\n And second, the research famous that solely these taking HCL noticed a major improve in fat-free mass though the monohydrate group noticed a bigger improve (3.5 kilos vs. 3.7 kilos), a discrepancy the authors failed to elucidate.<\/span><\/p>\n In a subsequent <\/span>study<\/span><\/a> by the identical analysis workforce, athletes taking HCL and monohydrate noticed related will increase in <\/span>lean physique mass<\/span> (one other proxy for muscle) and power, however solely these taking HCL noticed a lower in fats.<\/span><\/p>\n Once more, the scientists used skinfold calipers to find out these adjustments, which makes it tough to attract agency conclusions from their findings.\u00a0<\/span><\/p>\n Within the final <\/span>study<\/span><\/a> to match <\/span>creatine monohydrate vs. HCL<\/span>, researchers discovered that each HCL and monohydrate failed to enhance <\/span>athletic efficiency<\/span> and anabolic (\u201cmuscle-building\u201d) hormone ranges in younger males after one week.<\/span><\/p>\n These findings are unsurprising contemplating the time creatine takes to exert its results and <\/span>its minimal impact<\/span><\/a> on hormone ranges.<\/span><\/p>\n
    \n\n
    \n

    Discover the Finest Weight loss program for You in Simply 60 Seconds<\/h2>\n What number of energy do you have to eat? What about \"macros?\" What meals do you have to eat? Take our 60-second quiz to get science-based solutions to those questions and extra.<\/p>\nTake the Quiz<\/a>\n<\/div>\n<\/div>\n<\/span><\/p>\n

    Creatine HCL vs. Monohydrate: Execs and Cons<\/b><\/h2>\n Scientists developed <\/span>creatine HCL<\/span> to sidestep monohydrate\u2019s most <\/span>widespread unintended effects<\/span>: <\/span>water retention<\/span> and <\/span>weight achieve<\/span>.<\/span><\/p>\n These unintended effects usually have an effect on folks throughout a creatine \u201c<\/span>loading section<\/span>,\u201d the place you are taking greater doses for the primary week of taking creatine monohydrate to <\/span>accelerate<\/span><\/a> its accumulation in your muscle mass.<\/span><\/p>\n Throughout this time, your physique <\/span>may<\/span><\/a> retain<\/span><\/a> extra water than in the event you took smaller doses, probably inflicting short-term bloating and weight achieve.\u00a0<\/span><\/p>\n Due to its chemical composition, <\/span>HCL creatine<\/span> is 38 occasions extra soluble than monohydrate and probably extra \u201cbioavailable.\u201d As such, many consider taking HCL helps you keep away from hostile unintended effects because you devour much less water and creatine than when supplementing with monohydrate.<\/span><\/p>\n Whereas these benefits sound promising, no proof confirms them in people, so it's best to consider them as \u201cpotential\u201d moderately than \u201cconfirmed\u201d advantages till scientists affirm them with high-quality analysis.<\/span><\/p>\n One more reason to not get too jazzed about these potential \u201cexecs\u201d is that loading creatine monohydrate is non-obligatory.<\/span><\/p>\n If you happen to\u2019re apprehensive about experiencing unintended effects, you may merely skip the loading section and take 3-to-5 grams every day as a substitute. This strategy might imply it's important to <\/span>wait<\/span><\/a> barely longer to expertise creatine\u2019s performance-enhancing advantages, nevertheless it gained\u2019t affect its long-term effectiveness.\u00a0<\/span><\/p>\n In different phrases, there\u2019s no assure HCL has any benefits over monohydrate. And even when it does, you may offset these benefits by taking much less monohydrate once you start supplementing.<\/span><\/p>\n A significant downside of selecting HCL over monohydrate is the price.<\/span><\/p>\n In a <\/span>systematic review<\/span><\/a> by the College of Colorado, researchers discovered that the majority types of creatine increase efficiency to an analogous diploma, however creatine monohydrate is considerably extra inexpensive. In accordance with their evaluation, the common price of a 5-gram serving of HCL is $1.10.\u00a0<\/span><\/p>\n In the meantime, a 5-gram serving of monohydrate prices simply $0.29.<\/span><\/p>\n

    Creatine HCL vs. Monohydrate: Frequent Aspect Results<\/b><\/h2>\n As famous earlier, HCL creatine might barely scale back your threat of <\/span>water retention<\/span>, bloating, and short-term <\/span>weight achieve<\/span> in comparison with creatine monohydrate.\u00a0<\/span><\/p>\n That stated, skipping the loading section when utilizing monohydrate also can mitigate these unintended effects.<\/span><\/p>\n Except for these minor and normally short-lived unintended effects, supplementing with creatine is mostly secure, even when <\/span>taking<\/span><\/a> giant every day doses (30 grams per day) for a number of years.<\/span><\/p>\n Opposite to what some say, there\u2019s no proof it causes zits, complications, or <\/span>high blood pressure<\/span><\/a>. Furthermore, it doesn\u2019t disturb sleep, virtually definitely <\/span>doesn\u2019t cause<\/span><\/a> hair loss, and supplied you could have wholesome kidneys, it <\/span>won\u2019t<\/span><\/a> harm<\/span><\/a> kidney well being, both.\u00a0<\/span><\/p>\n
    \n
    \n

    Some Nutritionists Cost Lots of of {Dollars} for This Weight loss program \"Hack\" . . .<\/h2>\n . . . and it is yours totally free. Take our 60-second quiz and study precisely what number of energy it's best to eat, what your \"macros\" needs to be, what meals are finest for you, and extra.<\/p>\nTake the Quiz<\/a>\n<\/div>\n<\/div>\n<\/span><\/p>\n

    Creatine HCL vs. Creatine Monohydrate<\/b>: Which Is Finest?<\/b><\/h2>\n Analysis exhibits that creatine of any variety improves your athletic efficiency in quite a few methods.\u00a0<\/span><\/p>\n Nonetheless, no kind of creatine is as well-studied, secure, cost-effective, and dependable as creatine monohydrate.\u00a0<\/span><\/p>\n Thus, monohydrate is the clear winner in a battle between <\/span>creatine monohydrate vs. HCL<\/span>.\u00a0<\/span><\/p>\n For a pure supply of micronized creatine monohydrate that additionally consists of two different elements to reinforce muscle progress and enhance restoration, attempt <\/span>Recharge<\/span><\/a>.<\/span><\/p>\n (If you happen to aren\u2019t positive if <\/span>Recharge<\/span><\/a> is best for you or if one other complement may higher suit your funds, circumstances, and targets, then <\/span>take the Legion Supplement Finder Quiz<\/span><\/a>! In lower than a minute, it\u2019ll let you know precisely what dietary supplements are best for you. <\/span>Click here to check it out<\/span><\/a>.)<\/span><\/p>\n

    FAQ #1: Does creatine make you larger?<\/b><\/h2>\n Sure.<\/span><\/p>\n Creatine <\/span>increases<\/span><\/a> the quantity of water held in muscle cells, making your muscle mass seem larger.<\/span><\/p>\n It additionally positively impacts <\/span>nitrogen balance<\/span><\/i><\/a> and the expression of sure genes, which helps you achieve dimension by boosting <\/span>muscle growth<\/span><\/a>.<\/span><\/p>\n

    FAQ #2: When is one of the best time to take creatine for muscle achieve?<\/b><\/h2>\n There\u2019s no \u201cfinest time to take creatine.\u201d<\/span><\/p>\n Research<\/span><\/a> exhibits it really works completely effectively once you take it at any time of the day.<\/span><\/p>\n

    FAQ #3: What occurs once you cease taking creatine?<\/b><\/h2>\n The creatine shops in your muscle mass will regularly deplete, inflicting your athletic efficiency to dip.\u00a0<\/span><\/p>\n This doesn\u2019t occur in a single day, although.<\/span><\/p>\n Supplied your muscle mass are totally saturated once you cease, you may <\/span>expect<\/span><\/a> to hold onto roughly 80% of your saved creatine for as much as 2 weeks, and it\u2019ll take round a month of not taking creatine earlier than your ranges return to \u201cbaseline.\u201d<\/span><\/p>\n

    FAQ #4: Can you are taking creatine earlier than mattress?<\/b><\/h2>\n Sure.\u00a0<\/span><\/p>\n Creatine isn\u2019t a stimulant, so taking it earlier than mattress gained\u2019t disturb your sleep.<\/span><\/p>\n Creatine might <\/span>reduce<\/span><\/a> complete and deep <\/span>sleep<\/span><\/a> period in animals.\u00a0<\/span><\/p>\n Whereas lowering sleep period and high quality normally harms psychological and bodily efficiency, <\/span>other<\/span><\/a> studies<\/span><\/a> show<\/span><\/a> that people taking creatine are mentally and bodily sharper, even when sleep-deprived.<\/span><\/p>\n Thus, it\u2019s doable (although extremely speculative) that creatine may scale back your want for sleep and counteract the drawbacks of sleep deprivation.<\/span><\/p>\n

    FAQ #5: How a lot water ought to I drink with creatine?<\/b><\/h2>\n For finest outcomes, observe the producer\u2019s directions.<\/span><\/p>\n This normally means taking creatine with 8-to-12 ounces of water.<\/span><\/p>\n
    \n

    +<\/span> Scientific References<\/h3>\n
      \n
    1. Cooper, Robert, et al. \u201cCreatine Supplementation with Specific View to Exercise\/Sports Performance: An Update.\u201d Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, vol. 9, no. 1, 20 July 2012, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov\/pmc\/articles\/PMC3407788\/, https:\/\/doi.org\/10.1186\/1550-2783-9-33.<\/a><\/li>\n
    2. Darrabie, Marcus D., et al. \u201cAMPK and Substrate Availability Regulate Creatine Transport in Cultured Cardiomyocytes.\u201d American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 300, no. 5, 1 May 2011, pp. E870-876, pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov\/21364119\/, https:\/\/doi.org\/10.1152\/ajpendo.00554.2010. Accessed 23 Dec. 2021.<\/a><\/li>\n
    3. Guzun, R., et al. \u201cSystems Bioenergetics of Creatine Kinase Networks: Physiological Roles of Creatine and Phosphocreatine in Regulation of Cardiac Cell Function.\u201d Amino Acids, vol. 40, no. 5, 10 Mar. 2011, pp. 1333\u20131348, link.springer.com\/article\/10.1007%2Fs00726-011-0854-x, https:\/\/doi.org\/10.1007\/s00726-011-0854-x. Accessed 18 Nov. 2019.<\/a><\/li>\n
    4. McCall, Wesley, and Adam M. Persky. \u201cPharmacokinetics of Creatine.\u201d Sub-Cellular Biochemistry, vol. 46, 2007, pp. 261\u2013273, pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov\/18652081\/. Accessed 18 Oct. 2023.<\/a><\/li>\n
    5. Jd, Branch. \u201cEffect of Creatine Supplementation on Body Composition and Performance: A Meta-Analysis.\u201d International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 1 June 2003, pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov\/12945830\/.<\/a><\/li>\n
    6. Camic, Clayton L, et al. \u201cThe Effects of Polyethylene Glycosylated Creatine Supplementation on Muscular Strength and Power.\u201d Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, vol. 24, no. 12, Dec. 2010, pp. 3343\u20133351, https:\/\/doi.org\/10.1519\/jsc.0b013e3181fc5c5c. Accessed 14 Apr. 2019.<\/a><\/li>\n
    7. Eckerson, Joan M., et al. \u201cEffect of Creatine Phosphate Supplementation on Anaerobic Working Capacity and Body Weight after Two and Six Days of Loading in Men and Women.\u201d The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, vol. 19, no. 4, 2005, p. 756, https:\/\/doi.org\/10.1519\/r-16924.1.<\/a><\/li>\n
    8. Anomasiri, Wilai, et al. \u201cLow Dose Creatine Supplementation Enhances Sprint Phase of 400 Meters Swimming Performance.\u201d Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand = Chotmaihet Thangphaet, vol. 87 Suppl 2, 1 Sept. 2004, pp. S228-232, pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov\/16083193\/. Accessed 7 July 2021.<\/a><\/li>\n
    9. Safdar, Adeel, et al. \u201cGlobal and Targeted Gene Expression and Protein Content in Skeletal Muscle of Young Men Following Short-Term Creatine Monohydrate Supplementation.\u201d Physiological Genomics, vol. 32, no. 2, Jan. 2008, pp. 219\u2013228, https:\/\/doi.org\/10.1152\/physiolgenomics.00157.2007.<\/a><\/li>\n
    10. Tang, Fu-Chun, et al. \u201cContribution of Creatine to Protein Homeostasis in Athletes after Endurance and Sprint Running.\u201d European Journal of Nutrition, vol. 53, no. 1, 8 Feb. 2013, pp. 61\u201371, https:\/\/doi.org\/10.1007\/s00394-013-0498-6. Accessed 19 Feb. 2019.<\/a><\/li>\n
    11. Kreider, Richard B., et al. \u201cInternational Society of Sports Nutrition Position Stand: Safety and Efficacy of Creatine Supplementation in Exercise, Sport, and Medicine.\u201d Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, vol. 14, no. 1, 13 June 2017, www.tandfonline.com\/doi\/full\/10.1186\/s12970-017-0173-z, https:\/\/doi.org\/10.1186\/s12970-017-0173-z.<\/a><\/li>\n
    12. Stockbrugger, Barry A., and Robert G. Haennel. \u201cContributing Factors to Performance of a Medicine Ball Explosive Power Test: A Comparison between Jump and Nonjump Athletes.\u201d Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, vol. 17, no. 4, 1 Nov. 2003, pp. 768\u2013774, pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov\/14636108\/, https:\/\/doi.org\/10.1519\/1533-4287(2003)0172.0.co;2.<\/a><\/li>\n
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