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How CBD Interacts with CB1 & CB2 Receptors –

Cannabidiol (CBD) interacts with two dominant receptors (CB1 and CB­2) of the endocannabinoid system (ECS). The way it does so has been extensively debated within the literature. The reality about CBD’s interplay with CB­1 & CB­2 is damaged down on this article.

Typically, it’s understood that CBD produces its results by various molecular pathways. As it’s, about 65 totally different pathways have been recognized.[1] In terms of endocannabinoid receptors, CBD has a particular motion on every of them. By means of this motion, a few of CBD’s therapeutic results are appreciated.

CB1 Receptors

These receptors are predominantly discovered within the central nervous system.[2] CBD acts as an allosteric modulator of CB1 receptors.[3] An allosteric modulator modifications the best way the receptor works with out really activating it. Which means that CBD could cause inhibitory results on CB1 agonists (substances that improve the receptor’s exercise), resembling tetrahydrocannabinol (THC).

Since CBD doesn’t occupy the identical place as THC on the receptor, it can’t displace THC. Nonetheless, it could “negate” a few of its results.[4] These embody enhancing reminiscence loss related to THC use and counteracting THC’s psychoactive results .

CB2 Receptors

Early on, it was believed that CBD binds on to CB2 receptors. Loopy sufficient, it was additionally thought that there have been no CB2 receptors within the central nervous system (the mind and spinal wire).[5] What we now know is that these are myths.

Whereas it’s true that there are CB2 receptors within the mind, most are discovered within the immune system.[2] CBD acts as an inverse agonist on the CB2 receptor, that means that it occupies the identical place on the receptor and produces the alternative impact of the agonist. And–to make issues a bit extra difficult–its results range extensively relying on its focus.[6]

In abstract, CBD acts on cannabinoid receptors very in a different way. And, not like THC, CBD additionally acts by many different non-cannabinoid receptor pathways to provide a few of its therapeutic results, explaining how it may be helpful for therefore many various circumstances. It’s additionally essential to keep in mind that CBD and THC aren’t the one cannabinoids within the plant and we’re nonetheless studying how different compounds work together with this method, in addition to terpenes.

As analysis continues to disclose complicated interactions inside within the ECS and past, stayed tuned as we carry on the beat of the evolving literature.

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  1. Ibeas Bih C, et al. Molecular targets of cannabidiol in neurological Neurotherapeutics. 2015;12(4):699-730.
  2. Pertwee RG. The various CB1 and CB2 receptor pharmacology of three plant cannabinoids: delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol and delta9-tetrahydrocannabivarin. Br J Pharmacol. 2008;153(2):199-215.
  3. Laprairie RB, et al. Cannabidiol is a detrimental allosteric modulator of the cannabinoid CB1 receptor. British J Pharmacol. 2015;172(20):4790-4805.
  4. Hudson R, et al. Cannabidiol counteracts the psychotropic side-effects of Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol within the ventral hippocampus by bi-directional management of ERK1-2 phosphorylation.” J Neurosci. 2019;39(44):8762-8777.
  5. Onaivi ES. Commentary: Purposeful neuronal CB2 cannabinoid receptors within the CNS. Curr Neuropharmacol. 2011;9(1):205-208.
  6. Pellati F, et al. Hashish sativa L. and nonpsychoactive cannabinoids: Their chemistry and function towards oxidative stress, irritation, and most cancers. Biomed Res Int. 2018:1691428.

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